THE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS BEGIN
[From: JEANNE D'ARC, MAID OF ORLEANS: DELIVERER OF FRANCE, Being the Story of her Life, her Achievements, and her Death, as Attested on Oath and Set Forth in the Original Documents.]
Editor: T. Douglas Murray; Publisher: McClure, Phillips, New York (1902).
(Textual footnotes are omitted)
Deliberations March 4th through the 9th.
March 4th: The Bishop decrees that the Inquiries, if any are thought necessary, shall henceforth be made in private.
Afterwards, We, the Bishop, did say that, in pursuing this Process and without in any way discontinuing it, We would call before Us some Doctors and Masters, experts in law, religious and civil, in order, by them, to gather up and collect what shall seem to them of a nature to be gathered up and collected, in Jeanne's Declarations, as these have already been established by her own answers set down in writing. Their labor ended, if there should remain any points, on the which it would seem Jeanne should submit to more full inquire, We will make, for this supplementary examination, choice of certain Doctors; and in this manner We shall not fatigue all and each of the Masters, who, at this moment, assist Us in such great numbers. These new inquiries shall also be put into writing, in order that the above-named Doctors and other approved men of science may deliberate and furnish their opinion and advice at the right moment. In the meantime, We invite all the Assessors to study at home the Process, and what they have already gathered from it; to search out the consequences of which the affair is susceptible; and to submit the result of their deliberations either to Us, or to the Doctors who shall be appointed by Us - if they do not prefer rather to reserve themselves for the time and place when they shall have deliberated in full maturity; and to give their opinion on full knowledge of the Process.
In the meantime, We expressly forbid all and each to leave Rouen without Our permission before the full completion of the Process.
Meeting at the Bishop's house of several Doctors.
Sunday, March 4th, and the Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th of the same month, We, the Bishop, assembled in Our dwelling, many grave Doctors - and Masters-in-law, sacred and civil, who were charged by Us to collect all that has been confessed or answered by Jeanne in these Inquiries, and to extract therefrom the points on which she answered in an incomplete manner, and which seem to these Doctors susceptible of further examination. This double work having been effected by them, We, the said Bishop, by the advice of the said Doctors, decide that there is occasion to proceed to further inquiries. But because Our numerous occupations do not permit Us to attend ourselves, we appoint, to proceed therein, the venerable and discreet person, Jean Delafontaine, Master of Arts and Licentiate in Canon Law, who will interrogate the said Jeanne in Our name. We have for this appointed the 9th March, in presence of the Doctors and Masters, Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Thomas de Courcelles, Nicolas Loyseleur, and Guillaume Manchon.
THE FIRST PRIVATE EXAMINATION
Saturday, March 10th, We, the Bishop, repaired to the part of the Castle of Rouen given to Jeanne as a prison, where, being assisted by Maitre Jean Delafontaine, the Commissary appointed by Us, and by the venerable Doctors and Masters in Theology, Nicolas Midi, and Gerard Feuillet (witnesses: Jean Fécard, Advocate; and Maître Jean Massieu, Priest).
We summoned Jeanne to make and take oath to speak the truth on what should be asked of her. She replied:
"I promise to speak truth on what touches your Case; but the more you constrain me to swear, the later will I tell you."
Afterwards, the examination of Jeanne by Maître Jean Delafontaine took place as follows:
"On the faith of the oath you have just taken, from whence had you started when you went the last time to Compiegne?"
"From Crespy, in Valois."
"When you were at Compiegne, were you several days before you made your sally or attack?"
"I arrived there secretly early in the morning, and entered the town without the enemy knowing anything of it; and that same day, in the evening, I made the sally in which I was taken."
"When you made your sally, did they ring the bells?"
"If they did ring them it was not by my order or knowledge; I do not think it was so, and I do not remember to have said they rang."
"Did you make this sally by command of your Voice?"
"During the Easter week of last year, being in the trenches of Melun, it was told me by my Voices - that is to say, by Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, 'You wilt be taken before Saint John's Day; and so it must be : do not torment thyself about it: be resigned; God will help thee.' "
"Before this occasion at Melun, had not your Voices ever told you that you would be taken?"
"Yes, many times and nearly every day. And I asked of my Voices that, when I should be taken, I might die soon, without long suffering in prison; and they said to me : 'Be resigned to all - thus it must be.' But they did not tell me the time; and if I had known it, I should not have gone. Often I asked to know the hour: they never told me."
"Did your Voices command you to make this sally from Compiegne, and signify that you would be taken if you went ?"
"If I had known the hour when I should be taken, I should never have gone of mine own free-will; I should always have obeyed their commands in the end, whatever might happen to me."
"When you made this sally from Compiegne had you any Voice or revelation about making it ?"
"That day I did not know at all that I should be taken, and I had no other command to go forth; but they had always told me it was necessary for me to be taken prisoner."
"When you made this sally, did you pass by the Bridge of Compiegne?"
"I passed by the bridge and the boulevard, and went with the company of followers of my side against the followers of my Lord of Luxembourg. I drove them back twice against the camp of the Burgundians, and the third time, to the middle of the highway. The English who were there then cut off the road from me and my people, between us and the boulevard. For this reason, my followers retreated, and, in retreating towards the fields, on the Picardy side, near the boulevard, I was taken. Between Compiegne and the place where I was taken there is nothing but the stream and the boulevard with its ditch."
"Did you not have on the banner you carried a representation of the world, painted with two angels, etc.?"
"Yes; and I had no other."
"What did this signify, to paint God holding the world, and these angels?"
"Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret told me that I was to take my banner and to carry it boldly, and to have painted on it the King of Heaven. I told my King, much against my will: that is all I can tell of the signification of this painting."
"Have you not a shield and arms?"
"I never had one; but my King has granted arms to my brothers, that is to say, a shield azure, two fleurs-de-lys of gold, and a sword betwixt. These arms I described in this town to a painter, because he asked what arms I bore. The King gave them to my brothers, [to please them,] without request from me and without revelation."
"Had you, when you were taken, a horse, charger, or hackney?"
"I was on horseback; the one which I was riding when I was taken was a demi-charger."
"Who had given you this horse ?"
"My King, or his people, from the King's money. I had five chargers from the King's money, without counting my hacks, of which I had more than seven."
"Had you any other riches from your King besides these horses?"
"I asked nothing from my King, except good arms, good horses, and money to pay my household."
"Had you no treasure?"
"The ten or twelve thousand I was worth is not much treasure to carry on war, very little indeed ; and such goods are my brothers', in my opinion; what I have is my King's own money."
"What was the sign that came to your King when you went to him?"
"It was beautiful, honorable, and most credible; the best and richest in the world."
"Then why will you not tell it and show it, since you wished to have the sign of Catherine de la Rochelle?
"I might not have asked to know the sign of the said Catherine, had that sign been as well shown before notable people of the Church and others, Archbishops and Bishops, as mine was before the Archbishop of Reims and other Bishops whose names I know not. There were there also Charles de Bourbon, the Sire de la Tremouille, the Duke d'Alencon, and many other knights, who saw and heard it as well as I see those who speak to me today; and, besides, I knew already, through Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, that the doings of this Catherine were as nothing."
"Does this sign still last?"
"It is well to know it; it will last a thousand years and more. My sign is with the King's treasure."
"Is it gold, silver, precious stones, or a crown?"
"I will tell you nothing more about it. No man in the world could devise so rich a thing as this sign; but the sign that you need is that God may deliver me from your hands; that is the most sure sign He could send you. When I was about to start to see my King, my Voices told me: 'Go boldly; when you art before the King, he shall have a sure sign to receive thee and believe in thee.' "
"When the sign came to your King, what reverence did you make to it? Did it come from God?"
"I thanked Our Lord for having delivered me from the trouble that I had with the clergy of my party, who were arguing against me; and I knelt down several times. An Angel from God, and from none other, sent the sign to my King; and for this I have many times thanked Our Lord. The priests of that party ceased to attack me when they had recognized the sign."
"The Clergy of that party then saw the sign?"
"When my King and those who were with him had seen the sign and also the Angel that brought it, I asked my King if he were satisfied. He answered, Yes. Then I left, and went to a little chapel close by. I have since heard that, after I left, more than three hundred persons saw the said sign. For love of me and that I should not be questioned about it, God permitted certain men of my party to see the sign in reality."
"Your King and you, did you do reverence to the Angel who brought the sign?"
"Yes; I made a salutation, knelt down, and took off my cap."
SECOND PRIVATE EXAMINATION
Monday, March 12th, in the morning; in Jeanne's prison. Present: The Bishop, assisted by Jean Delafontaine, Commissary; Nicholas Midi and Gerard Feuillet; and as their witnesses: Thomas Fiefvet, Pasquier de Vaux, and Nicolas de Houbent.
In presence of all the above-named, We required the said Jeanne to swear to speak truth on what should be asked her.
She replied: "On what touches your Case, as I have said already, I will willingly speak truth." And thus did she make oath.
Then, by Our order, she was questioned by Maître Jean Delafontaine:
"Did not the Angel who bore the sign to your King speak to him?"
"Yes, he spoke to him; and he told my King it was necessary that I should be set to work, so that the country might be soon relieved."
"Was the Angel who bore the sign to your King the same Angel who had before appeared to you ?"
"It is all one; and he has never failed me."
"Has not the Angel, then, failed you with regard to the good things of this life, in that you have been taken prisoner ?"
"I think, as it has pleased Our Lord, that it is for my well-being that I was taken prisoner."
"Has your Angel never failed you in the good things of grace ?"
"How can he fail me, when he comforts me every day? My comfort comes from Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret."
"Do you call them, or do they come without being called?"
"They often come without being called; and other times, if they do not come soon, I pray Our Lord to send them."
"Have you sometimes called them without their coming?"
"I have never had need of them without having them."
"Has Saint Denis appeared to you sometimes ?"
"Not that I know."
"When you promised Our Savior to preserve your virginity, was it to Him that you spoke?"
"It would quite suffice that I give my promise to those who were sent by Him - that is to say, to Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret."
"Who induced you to have cited a man of the town of Toul on the question of marriage?"
"I did not have him cited; it was he, on the contrary, who had me cited; and then I swore before the Judge to speak the truth. And besides, I had promised nothing to this man. From the first time I heard my Voices, I dedicated my virginity for so long as it should please God; and I was then about thirteen years of age. My Voices told me I should win my case in this town of Toul."
"As to your visions, did you speak of them to your Cure or to any other Churchman?"
"No; only to Robert de Baudricourt and to my King. It was not my Voices who compelled me to keep them secret; but I feared to reveal them, in dread that the Burgundians might put some hindrance in the way of my journey; and, in particular, I was afraid that my father would hinder it."
"Do you think that you did right to go without leave from your father or mother, when you should 'honor your father and mother'?"
"In all things I obeyed them well, except in that of the journey: but afterwards I wrote to them, and they forgave me."
"When you left your father and mother, do you think you sinned?"
"If God commanded, it was right to obey. If God commanded it, had I a hundred fathers and mothers, and had I been a king's daughter, I should have gone."
"Did you ask your Voices if you should announce your departure to your father and mother?"
"As to my father and mother, my Voices would have been quite willing I should tell them, had it not been for the trouble I should have caused them in speaking of this. As for myself, I would not have told them at any price. My Voices agreed that I might either speak to my father and mother or be silent."
''Did you do reverence to Saint Michael and the Angels when you saw them?"
"Yes; and, after they were gone I kissed the earth where they had been."
"Were they long with you?"
"Very often they came among the faithful [i.e., in church] without being seen; and often I saw them among the faithful."
"Had you had any letters from Saint Michael or from your Voices?"
"I have not permission to tell you. Eight days from this, I will tell you willingly what I know."
"Did not your Voices call you 'Daughter of God, daughter of the Church, great-hearted daughter?'"
"Before the raising of the Siege of Orleans and every day since, when they speak to me, they call me often, 'Jeanne the Maid, Daughter of God.'"
"Since you call yourself a daughter of God, why do you not willingly say 'Our Father'?"
"I do say it willingly. Last time, when I refused, it was because I meant that my Lord of Beauvais should hear me in confession."
THIRD PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The same day, Monday, in the afternoon, in the same place. Present: Jean Delafontaine, Commissary: Nicolas Midi; Gerard Feuillet; Thomas Fiefvet; Pasquier de Vaux; and Nicolas de Houbent.
The said Jeanne was interrogated as follows by Our order by the said Jean Delafontaine:
"Did not your father have dreams about you before your departure?"
"When I was still with my father and mother, my mother told me many times that my father had spoken of having dreamed that I, Jeannette, his daughter, went away with the men-at-arms. My father and mother took great care to keep me safe, and held me much in subjection. I obeyed them in everything, except in the case at Toul - the action for marriage. I have heard my mother say that my father told my brothers 'Truly, if I thought this thing would happen that I have dreamed about my daughter, I would wish you to drown her; and, if you would not do it, I would drown her myself!' He nearly lost his senses when I went to Vaucouleurs."
"Did these thoughts and dreams come to your father after you had your visions?"
"Yes, more than two years after I had heard my first Voice."
"Was it at the request of Robert de Baudricourt or of yourself that you took man's dress ?"
"It was of myself, and at the request of no living man."
"Did your Voices command you to take man's dress?"
"All that I have done of good, I have done by the command of my Voices. As to the dress, I will answer about it another time: at present I am not advised, but tomorrow I will answer."
"In taking man's dress, did you think you were doing wrong ?"
"No; even now if I were with those of my own side and in this man's dress, it seems to me it would be a great good for France to do as I did before I was taken."
"How would you have delivered the Duke d'Orleans?"
"I should have taken enough English prisoners in France to have exchanged for him; if I had not taken enough in France, I should have crossed the sea to seek him in England, by force."
"Did Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret tell you absolutely and without condition that you would take enough English to get back the Duke d'Orleans, who is in England, or that otherwise you would cross the sea to seek him?"
"Yes, and I said so to my King: and he allowed me to treat with the English lords who were then prisoners. If I had continued three years without hindrance, I should have delivered him. To do this, it needed less time than three years and more than one. But I do not remember about it."
"What was the sign you gave to the King?"
"I shall take counsel regarding that from Saint Catherine."
Deliberations of March 12th.
Monday, March 12th, assembled in Our dwelling, summoned by Us, the religious and discreet person, Brother Jean Lemaître, of the Order of Saint Dominic, Deputy of the Inquisitor of the Evil of Heresy in the Kingdom of France, in presence of the Venerable and discreet persons the Lords and Masters, Thomas Fiefvet, Pasquier de Vaux, Nicolas de Houbent, Brother Ysambard de la Pierre.
We, the Bishop, did show to the said Deputy, that, at the outset of the Action for Heresy brought by us against the woman, commonly called Jeanne the Maid, We had summoned and required him, the said Deputy, to join with us; and that we had offered to communicate to him the acts, documents and, in one word, all we possess bearing on the matter of the Process. He had then made a difficulty, not being, he told Us, commissioned except for the City and Diocese of Rouen and the Action in question being deduced by Us by right of our jurisdiction of Beauvais, on territory conceded to Us for this purpose. For this cause, in order to give all security to this matter and by an excess of precaution, We have, by the advice of the Masters, decided to write about it to the Chief Inquisitor, requesting him to come himself without delay to Rouen, or specially to appoint a Deputy to whom, for the deduction and completion of the Process, he might wish to give full powers. The said Inquisitor had received Our letter, and acceding with kindness to Our request, for the honor and exaltation of the Orthodox Faith, he had specially commissioned and appointed for this Action the said Brother Jean Lemaître, as do appear in the letters patent furnished and attested with the seal of the Inquisition.
In consequence of this letter, We, the Bishop, summon and require the said Brother Jean Lemaître, here present, the terms of the said letter, to join with us in this said Action.
To which the said Brother answered: that he would examine the Commission addressed to him, the Process signed by the registrars, and all that it should please Us to communicate to him; and that, all being seen and examined by him, he will give Us an answer and will do for the Holy Inquisition that which is right.
We, the Bishop, added: that the said Deputy had been present at a great part of the Process ; that he had, in consequence, been able to hear a great part of Jeanne's answers; that nevertheless We held ourselves satisfied by what he had just said, and would certainly communicate to him the Process and all that had already been done, that he may take fuller cognizance of everything.
FOURTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The Deputy Inquisitor joins the Court.
Tuesday, March 13th, in the prison. Present: The Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaître, assisted by Jean Delafontaine, Nicolas Midi, and Gerard Feuillet; witnesses: Nicolas de Houbent and Ysambard de la Pierre.
The said Brother Jean Lemaître declared to Us that seeing the letter addressed to him which we had yesterday communicated, together with the other circumstances of the Process, and all being well considered, he joins himself to Us and is ready to proceed with Us according to law and right.
We, the Bishop, then made known with gentleness to Jeanne this intervention, exhorting and warning her, for the salvation of her soul, to speak the truth on all which should be asked of her.
The Deputy Inquisitor appoints his Officers.
Deliberations of March 13th.
And then, the Deputy of the Chief Inquisitor, wishing to proceed regularly in the Process, had declared his choice of the Officers whose names follow:
1. As Promoter from the Holy Inquisition, Messier Jean d'Estivet, Canon of the Churches of Bayeux and Beauvais.
2. As Registrar of his office, Messier Nicolas Taquel, Priest of the Diocese of Rouen, Notary Public and Registrar of the Archiepiscopal Court of Rouen.
3. As Executor of his Orders and Citations, Messier Jean Massieu, Priest.
4. As keepers of the prison, the noble man, John Grey, Squire of the Body Guard of Our Lord the King, and John Berwoit. These, We, the Bishop, had, with the exception of Messier Nicolas Taquel, but only in that which concerns Our office, already appointed to the same functions, as confirmed for Our part in the letters above quoted, and as confirmed by the said Inquisitor by his letters, of which mention follows. The said officers did then take oath, between the hands of the said Deputy, to faithfully fulfill their functions.
[Here follow the three letters of Nomination of the Promoter, d'Estivet; the Registrar, Taquel; and the Usher, Massieu: dated Tuesday, March 13th: signed Boisguillaume, Manchon: the nomination of Taquel, Registrar, is dated March 14th.]
All which precedes having already taken place, as has been said up to the present time, We, the Bishop, and Brother Jean Lemaître, Deputy of the Inquisitor, have from this moment proceeded together to all the remainder of the Process, and have questioned or caused questions to be made as it had begun.
Tuesday, March 13th. - Present: The Bishop, and Brother Jean Lemaître, Jean Delafontaine, Nicolas Midi, Gerard Feuillet; in the presence of Nicolas de Houbent and of Brother Ysambard de la Pierre.
By Our order, Jeanne was asked as follows:
"What was the sign you gave your King ?"
"Will you be satisfied that I should perjure myself?"
"Have you promised and sworn to Saint Catherine that you will not tell this sign?"
"I promised and swore not to tell this sign, and for my own sake, because I was pressed too much to tell it, and then I said to myself: 'I promise not to speak of it to any one in the world.' The sign was that an Angel assured my King, in bringing him the crown, that he should have the whole realm of France, by the means of God's help and my labors; that he was to start me on the work - that is to say, to give me men-at-arms; and that otherwise he would not be so soon crowned and consecrated."
"Have you spoken to Saint Catherine since yesterday?"
"I have heard her since yesterday, and she has several times told me to reply boldly to the Judges on what they shall ask me touching my Case."
"How did the Angel carry the crown? and did he place it himself on your King's head ?"
"The crown was given to an Archbishop - that is, to the Archbishop of Reims - so it seems to me, in the
presence of my King. The Archbishop received it, and gave it to the King. I was myself present. The crown was afterwards put among my King's treasures."
"To what place was the crown brought ?"
"To the King's Chamber, in the Castle of Chinon."
"What day and what time?"
"The day, I do not know; of the time, it was full day. I have no further recollection of it. Of the month
it was March or April, it seems to me. In this present month of March or next April it will be two years since. It was after Easter."
"Was it on the first day that you saw the sign when the King saw it?"
"Yes, he had it the same day."
"Of what material was the said crown ?"
"It is well to know it was of fine gold; it was so rich that I do not know how to count its riches or to
appreciate its beauty. The crown signified that my King should possess the Kingdom of France."
"Were there stones in it?"
"I have told you what I know about it."
"Did you touch or kiss it?"
"Did the Angel who brought this crown come from Heaven or earth ?"
"He came from above, and I presume that he came by Our Lord's command; he came in by the door of the room. When he came before my King, he did him reverence by bowing before him, and pronouncing the words I have already said; and at the same time the Angel put him in mind of the great patience he had had in presence of so many tribulations. From the door, the Angel walked, and touched the earth, in coming to the King."
"What space was there between the door and the King?"
"My opinion is that there was quite the space of a lance-length [About 10 feet]; and he returned the way he came. When the Angel came, I accompanied him and went with him by the staircase to the King's Chamber. The Angel went in first, then myself, and I said to the King: 'Sire, there is your sign; take it.'"
"Where did the Angel appear to you ?"
"I was nearly always at prayer that God might send the sign to the King; and I was at my lodging, at the house of a worthy woman, near the Castle of Chinon, when he came; afterwards, we went together to the King. He was accompanied by other Angels whom no one saw. Had it not been for love of me, and to free me of trouble from those that accused me, I think that many who saw the Angel would not have seen him."
"Did all those who were with the King see the Angel?"
"I believe that the Archbishop of Reims saw him, and so did the Lords d'Alencon, la Tremouille, and Charles de Bourbon. As to the crown, many Clergy and others saw it who did not see the Angel."
"Of what appearance, what height, was this Angel?"
"I have not permission to say; tomorrow I will answer about it."
"All the Angels who accompanied him, had they the same appearance ?"
"Some resembled him well enough, others not: at least, so far as I saw. Some had wings, others were crowned. In company with them were Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, who were with the Angel aforesaid, and the other Angels also, right up to the King's Chamber."
"How did the Angel leave you?"
"He left me in that little Chapel. I was much vexed at his going; I wept; willingly would I have gone with him - that is to say, my soul."
"After the departure of the Angel, did you remain happy [or were you in great fear?"]
"He did not leave me either in fear or terror ; but I was grieved at his going."
"Is it for any merit of yours that God sent you this Angel?"
"He came for a great purpose: I was in hopes that the King would believe the sign, and that they would cease to argue with me, and would aid the good people of Orleans. The Angel came for the merits of the King and of the good Duke d'Orleans."
"Why to you rather than to another?"
"It has pleased God so to do by a simple maiden, in order to drive back the enemies of the King."
"Was it told you whence the Angel had taken this crown?"
"It was brought from God; no goldsmith in the world would know how to fashion it so rich and fair."
"Whence did he take it?"
"I refer me to God; and know nothing more of whence it was taken."
"This crown, did it smell well and had it a good odor? did it glitter?"
"I do not remember about it; I will think it over. [Remembering:] "Yes, it smelt good, and will smell
good always, if it be well guarded, as it should be. It was in the form of a crown."
"Did the Angel write you a letter?"
"What sign had your King and the people who were with him and yourself, to believe that it was an Angel?"
"The King believed it by the teaching of the Clergy who were there, and by the sign of the crown."
"But how did the Clergy know it was an Angel?"
"By their knowledge and because they were clerks."
"What have you to say about a married priest and a lost cup that you were to have pointed out?"
"Of all this I know nothing, nor have I ever heard of it."
"When you came before Paris, had you revelations from your Voices to go there?"
"No, I went at the request of the gentlemen who wished to make an attack or assault-at-arms; I intended
to go there and break through the trenches."
"Had you any revelation to attack La Charite?"
"No, I went there at the request of the men-at-arms, as I said elsewhere."
"Did you have any revelation to go to Pont l'Eveque?"
"After I had, in the trenches of Melun, revelation that I should be taken, I consulted more often with the Captains of the army; but I did not tell them that this revelation [had come to me."]
"Was it well to attack the town of Paris on the day of the Festival of the Nativity of Our Lady?"
"It is well to observe the Festival of the Blessed Mary, and on my conscience it seems to me that it was, and ever will be, well to observe these festivals, from one end to the other."
"Did you not say before Paris, 'Surrender this town by order of Jesus'?"
"No, but I said, 'Surrender it to the King of France.''
FIFTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
Wednesday, March 14th. - Jean Delafontaine, assisted by Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. Witnesses: Nicolas de Houbent and Ysambard de la Pierre.
Jeanne was interrogated as follows:
"Why did you throw yourself from the top of the Tower at Beaurevoir?"
"I had heard that the people of Compiegne, all, to the age of seven years, were to be put to fire and sword; and I would rather have died than live after such a destruction of good people. That was one of the reasons. The other was that I knew I was sold to the English ; and I had rather die than be in the hands of my enemies, the English."
"Did your Saints counsel you about it?"
"Saint Catherine told me almost every day not to leap, that God would help me, and also those at Compiegne. I said to Saint Catherine: 'Since God will help those at Compiegne, I wish to be there.' Saint Catherine said to me, 'Be resigned, and do not falter: you will not be delivered before seeing the King of England.' I answered her: 'Truly I do not wish to see him; I would rather die than fall into the hands of the English.'"
"Is it true that you said to Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret: 'Will God leave these good people of Compiegne to die so horribly'?"
"I did not say 'so horribly,' but, 'How can God leave these good people of Compiegne, who have been, and are, so loyal to their lord, to die ?' After having fallen, I was two or three days without eating. By the leap I was so injured that I could neither eat nor drink; and all the time I was consoled by Saint Catherine, who told me to confess, and to beg pardon of God; and, without fail, those at Compiegne would have help before Martin's Day in the winter. Then I began to recover and to eat, and was soon cured."
"When you made this leap, did you think you would kill yourself?"
"No; but, in leaping, I commended myself to God. I hoped by means of this leap to escape, and to avoid being delivered up to the English."
"When speech returned to you, did you not blaspheme and curse God and His Saints? This is proved by allegation."
"I have no memory of having ever blasphemed and cursed God and His Saints, in that place or elsewhere."
"Will you refer this to the inquire made or to be made?"
"I refer me to God and not to any other, and to a good confession."
"Do your Voices ask delay to answer you?"
"Sometimes Saint Catherine answers me, but I fail to understand because of the great disturbance in the prison and the noise made by my guards. When I make a request to Saint Catherine, both my Saints make request to Our Lord; then, by order of Our Lord, they give answer to me."
"When your Saints come to you, have they a light with them? Did you not see the light on a certain occasion when you heard the Voices in the Castle, without knowing if the Voice were in your room?"
"There is never a day that my Saints do not come to the Castle; and they never come without light. And as to this Voice of which you speak, I do not remember if on that occasion I saw the light or even Saint Catherine. I asked three things of my Voices - My deliverance; That God would come to the help of the French, and protect the towns under their control; The salvation of my soul."
[Addressing herself to the Judges :] If it should be that I am taken to Paris, grant, I pray you, that I may have a copy of my questions and answers, so that I may lend them to those at Paris, and that I may be able to say to them: 'Thus was I questioned at Rouen; and here are my answers : in this way, I shall not have to trouble again over so many questions."
"You said that my Lord of Beauvais puts himself in great danger by bringing you to trial; of what danger were you speaking? In what peril or danger do we place ourselves, your Judges and the others?"
"I said to my Lord of Beauvais, 'You say that you are my Judge; I do not know if you are, but take heed not to judge wrongly, because you would put yourself in great danger; and I warn you of it, so that, if Our Lord should punish you for it, I shall have done my duty in telling you."
"But what is this peril or danger?"
"Saint Catherine has told me that I shall have help; I do not know if this will be to be delivered from prison, or if, whilst I am being tried, some disturbance may happen, by which I shall be delivered. The help will come to me, I think, in one way or the other. Besides this, my Voices have told me that I shall be delivered by a great victory; and they add: 'Be resigned ; have no care for thy martyrdom; you will come in the end to the Kingdom of Paradise.' They have told me this simply, absolutely, and without fail. What is meant by my martyrdom is the pain and adversity that I suffer in prison; I do not know if I shall have still greater suffering to bear; for that I refer me to God."
"Since your Voices told you that you would come in the end to the Kingdom of Paradise, have you felt assured of being saved and of not being damned in Hell?"
"I believe firmly what my Voices have told me, that I shall be saved; I believe it as firmly as if I were already there."
"After this revelation, do you believe that you cannot commit mortal sin ?"
"I do not know, and in all things I wait on Our Lord."
"That is an answer of great weight!"
"Yes, and one which I hold for a great treasure."
SIXTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The same day, Wednesday, March 14th, in the afternoon. Present : Jean Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted by Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. Witnesses: Brother Ysambard de la Pierre and Jean Manchon.
And in the first place, Jeanne expressed herself thus:
"On the subject of the answer that I made to you this morning on the certainty of my salvation, I mean the answer thus: provided that I keep the promise made to Our Lord, to keep safe the virginity of my body and soul."
"Have you any need to confess, as you believe by the revelations of your Voices that you will be saved?"
"I do not know of having committed mortal sin; but, if I were in mortal sin, I think that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret would abandon me at once. I do not think one can cleanse one's conscience too much."
"Since you have been in the prison, have you never blasphemed or cursed God?"
"No; sometimes I said: 'bon gre Dieu,' or 'Saint Jean,' or 'Notre Dame' : those who have reported otherwise may have misunderstood."
"To take a man at ransom, and to put him to death, while a prisoner, is not that mortal sin?"
"I never did it."
"What did you do to Franquet d'Arras, who was put to death, at Lagny?"
"I consented that he should die if he had merited it, because he had confessed to being a murderer, thief, and traitor; his trial lasted fifteen days; he had for Judge the Bailly of Senlis and the people of the Court at Lagny. I had given orders to exchange this Franquet against a man of Paris, landlord of the Hotel de l'Ours. When I learnt the death of the latter, and the Bailly told me that I should do great wrong to justice by giving up Franquet, I said to the Bailly, 'As my man is dead, do with the other what you should do, for justice.'
"Did you give, or cause to be given, money to him who took Franquet?"
"I am not Master of the Mint or Treasurer of France to pay out money so."
"We recall to you: That you attacked Paris on a Feast Day; That you had the horse of my Lord the Bishop of Senlis; That you threw yourself down from the Tower of Beaurevoir; That you wear a man's dress; That you consented to the death of Franquet d'Arras: do you not think you have committed mortal sin in these?"
"For what concerns the attack on Paris, I do not think myself to be in mortal sin; if I have so done, it is for God to know it, and the Priest in confession. As to the horse of my Lord the Bishop of Senlis, I firmly believe I have not sinned against Our Lord: the horse was valued at 200 gold crowns, of which he received assignment; nevertheless, this horse was sent back to the Sire de la Tremouille, to restore it to my Lord of Senlis; it was not fit for me to ride; besides, it was not I who took it; and, moreover, I did not wish to keep it, having heard that the Bishop was displeased that it had been taken from him, and, beyond all this, the horse was of no use for warfare. I do not know if the Bishop was paid, nor if his horse was restored to him; I think not. As to my fall from the Tower at Beaurevoir, I did not do it in despair, but thinking to save myself and to go to the help of all those brave folk who were in danger. After my fall, I confessed myself and asked pardon. God has forgiven me, not for any good in me: I did wrong, but I know by revelation from Saint Catherine that, after the confession I made, I was forgiven. It was by the counsel of Saint Catherine that I confessed myself."
"Did you do penance for it?"
"Yes, and my penance came to me in great part from the harm I did myself in falling. You ask me if I believe this wrong which I did in leaping to be mortal sin? I know nothing about it, but refer me to God. As to my dress, since I bear it by command of God and for His service, I do not think I have done wrong at all; so soon as it shall please God to prescribe it, I will take it off.
SEVENTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The following Thursday, March 15th, in the morning. Present: Jean Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted by Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. Witnesses: Nicolas de Houbent and Brother Ysambard de la Pierre.
First of all, Jeanne was charitably exhorted, warned, and required, if she had done anything which might be against our Faith, that she should refer it to the decision of Holy Mother Church.
"Let my answers," she said, "be seen and examined by the Clergy: then let them tell me if there be anything against the Christian Faith. I shall know surely by my counsel what it is, and will say afterwards what shall be judged and decided. And, moreover, if there be anything wrong against the Christian Faith which Our Lord commanded, I should not wish to maintain it, and should be very sorry to be in opposition."
Then we explained to her about the Church Triumphant and the Church Militant, and the difference between them. [She was] required to submit to the decision of the Church Militant whatever she had said or done, whether of good or ill.
"I will answer you nothing more about it now," she said.
"Upon the oath that you have taken, tell us, how did you think to escape from the Castle of Beaulieu between two planks of wood ?"
"Never was I prisoner in such a place that I would not willingly have escaped. Being in that Castle, I should have shut my keepers in the tower, if it had not been that the porter espied me and encountered me. It did not please God that I should escape this time: it was necessary for me to see the English King, as my Voices had told me, and as has been already said."
"Have you had permission from God or your Voices to leave prison when it shall please you?"
"I have asked it many times, but I have not yet had [permission."]
"Would you go now, if you saw your starting-point ?"
"If I saw the door open, I should go: that would be leave from Our Lord. If I saw the door open, and my keepers and the other English beyond power of resistance, truly I should see in it my permission and help sent me by Our Lord. But without this permission, I shall not go, unless I make a forcible attempt, and so learn if Our Lord would be pleased: this on the strength of the proverb, 'Help thyself, and God will help thee': I say this in order that, if I do escape, no one may say I did so without God's leave."
"When you asked to hear Mass, did it not seem to you that it would be more proper to be in female dress? Which would you prefer, to have a woman's dress to hear Mass, or to remain in a man's dress and not hear it?"
"Give me assurance beforehand that I shall hear Mass if I am in female attire, and I will answer you this."
"Very well, I give you assurance of it: you shall hear Mass if you put on female attire."
"And what say you, if I have sworn and promised to our King my Master, not to put off this dress? Well, I will answer you this: Have made for me a long dress down to the ground, without a train; give it to me to go to Mass, and then on my return I will put on again the dress I have."
"I say it to you once again, do you consent to wear female attire to go and hear Mass?"
"I will take counsel on this, and then I will answer you: but I beseech you, for the honor of God and Our Lady, permit me to hear Mass in this good town."
"You consent simply and absolutely to take female attire?"
"Send me a dress like a daughter of your citizens that is to say, a long 'houppeland.' I will wear it to go and hear Mass. I beseech you as earnestly as I can, permit me to hear it in the dress I wear at this moment and without changing anything!"
"Will you submit your actions and words to the decision of the Church?"
"My words and deeds are all in God's Hands: in all, I wait upon Him. I assure you, I would say or do nothing against the Christian Faith: in case I have done or said anything which might be on my soul and which the clergy could say was contrary to the Christian Faith established by Our Lord, I would not maintain it, and would put it away."
"Are you not willing to submit yourself in this to the order of the Church?"
"I will answer you nothing more about it now. Send me a cleric on Saturday; and, if you do not wish to come yourself, I will answer him upon this, with God's help; and it shall be put in writing."
"When your Voices come, do you make obeisance to them as to a Saint?"
"Yes; and if perchance I have not done so, I have afterwards asked of them grace and pardon. I should not know how to do them such great reverence as belongs to them, for I believe firmly they are Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. I believe the same of Saint Michael."
"For those who are Saints of Paradise, offerings are voluntarily made of candles, etc.: have you never made an offering of lighted candles, or other things, to the Saints who come to you, in the Church or elsewhere, or had Masses said?"
"No, unless it be in the offering of the Mass, in the hands of the Priest, in honor of Saint Catherine, one of the Saints who appeared to me. I have never lighted as many candles as I wish to Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, who are in Paradise; and I firmly believe it is they who come to me."
"When you place lights before the image of Saint Catherine, do you place them in honor of the one who appears to you?"
"I do it in honor of God, of Our Lady, and of Saint Catherine who is in Heaven, and of her who appears to me."
"Do you place these lights in honor of Saint Catherine, who has shown herself to you, who has appeared to you ?"
"Yes, I make no difference between the one who has appeared to me, and the one who is in heaven."
"Do you always do, and accomplish, what your Voices command you?"
"With all my power I accomplish the command that Our Lord sends me through my Voices, in so far as I understand them. My Voices command nothing but by the good pleasure of Our Lord."
"In warfare, have you done nothing without counsel of your Voices ?"
"I have already answered you thereon: read your book again well, and you will find it. At the request of the men-at-arms, there was an assault made before Paris, and, at the request of the King himself, one also before La Charite. These were neither against nor by the order of my Voices."
"Have you never done anything against their command and will?"
"All that I could and knew how to do, I have done and accomplished to the best of my power. As to the matter of the fall from the keep of Beaurevoir, I did it against their command; but I could not control myself. When my Voices saw my need, and that I neither knew how, nor was able, to control myself, they saved my life and kept me from killing myself. Whatever things I did in my greatest undertakings, they always helped me; and that is a sign they are good spirits."
"Have you no other sign that they are good spirits?"
"Saint Michael assured me of it before the Voices came to me."
"How did you know it was Saint Michael?"
"By the speech and language of the Angels. I believe firmly that they were Angels."
"But how did you know it was the language of Angels?"
"I believed it at once, and I had the will to believe it. When Saint Michael came to me, he said to me: 'Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret will come to thee; follow their counsel; they have been chosen to guide thee and counsel thee in all that you have to do: believe what they shall tell thee, it is the order of Our Lord.' "
"If the devil were to put himself in the form or likeness of an angel, how would you know if it were a good or an evil angel?"
"I should know quite well if it were Saint Michael or a counterfeit. The first time I was in great doubt if it were Saint Michael; and I was much afraid. I had seen him many times before I knew it was Saint Michael."
"Why did you recognize him sooner at that time, when you say you believed it was he, than when he first appeared to you?"
"The first time I was a young child, and I was much afraid; afterwards, he had taught me so well, and it was so clear to me, that I believed assuredly it was he."
"What doctrine did he teach you?"
"Above all things he told me to be a good child, and that God would aid me to come to the help of the King of France, among other things. The greater part of what he taught me is already in the book in which you are writing: he told me of the great misery there was in the Kingdom of France."
"What was the height and appearance of this Angel?"
"On Saturday I will reply, with other things which I should answer, as it shall please God."
"Do you not think it a great sin, and one which offends Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret who appeared to you, to act against their commands?"
"Yes, certainly; and the greatest I have ever committed, in my opinion, has been the leap from the Tower of Beaurevoir; for the which I have besought their mercy, and for all other offenses , I may have done against them."
"Will Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret take bodily vengeance for this offense?"
"I do not know, and did not ask them."
"You have asserted that, for speaking the truth, men were sometimes hanged: do you, then, know any crime or fault in yourself for which you should die, if you confessed it ?"
"I know of none."
EIGHTH and NINTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The following Saturday, March 17th Present: Jean Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted by Nicolas Midi, and Gerard Feuillet, in the presence of Ysambard de la Pierre and of Jean Massieu.
The said Jeanne was required to take the oath already made by her. Afterwards, she was again interrogated:
"In what form, kind, size, and dress did Saint Michael come to you?"
"In the form of a true honest man ['prud homme' ]; of his dress and the rest I will say nothing more. As to the Angels, I saw them with my eyes; you will hear naught else about it. I believe the deeds and words of Saint Michael, who appeared to me, as firmly as I believe that Our Savior Jesus Christ suffered Death and Passion for us. And that which makes me believe it, is the good counsel, comfort, and good doctrine which he has given me."
"Will you, in respect of all your words and deeds, whether good or bad, submit yourself to the decision of our Holy Mother the Church?"
"The Church! I love it, and would wish to maintain it with all my power, for our Christian Faith; it is not I who should be prevented from going to Church and hearing Mass! As to the good deeds I have done and my coming to the King, I must wait on the King of Heaven, who sent me to Charles, King of France, son of Charles, who was King of France. You will see that the French will soon gain a great victory, that God will send such great doings that nearly all the Kingdom of France will be shaken by them. I say it, so that, when it shall come to pass, it may be remembered that I said it."
"When will this happen?"
"I wait on Our Lord."
"Will you refer yourself to the decision of the Church?"
"I refer myself to God Who sent me, to Our Lady, and to all the Saints in Paradise. And in my opinion it is all one, God and the Church; and one should make no difficulty about it. Why do you make a difficulty?"
"There is a Church Triumphant in which are God and the Saints, the Angels, and the Souls of the Saved. There is another Church, the Church Militant, in which are the Pope, the Vicar of God on earth, the Cardinals, Prelates of the Church, the Clergy and all good Christians and Catholics: this Church, regularly assembled, cannot err, being ruled by the Holy Spirit. Will you refer yourself to this Church which we have thus just defined to you?"
"I came to the King of France from God, from the Blessed Virgin Mary, from all the Saints of Paradise, and the Church Victorious above, and by their command. To this Church I submit all my good deeds, all that I have done or will do. As to saying whether I will submit myself to the Church Militant, I will now answer no more."
"What do you say on the subject of the female attire which is offered to you that you may go to Mass?"
"I will not take it yet, until it shall please Our Lord. And if it should happen that I should be brought to judgment, [and that I have to divest myself in Court.](1)....(In the Minute.) I beseech the lords of the Church to do me the grace to allow me a woman's smock and a hood for my head; I would rather die than revoke what God has made me do; and I believe firmly that God will not allow it to come to pass that I should be brought so low that I may not soon have succor from Him, and by miracle."
"As you say that you bear a man's dress by the command of God, why do you ask for a woman's smock at the point of death?"
"It will be enough for me if it be long."
"Did your Godmother who saw the fairies pass as a wise woman?"
"She was held and considered a good and honest woman, neither divineress nor sorceress."
"You said you would take a woman's dress, so that you might be free: would this please God?"
"If I had leave to go in woman's dress, I should soon put myself back in man's dress and do what God has commanded me: I have already told you so. For nothing in the world will I swear not to arm myself and put on a man's dress; I must obey the orders of Our Lord."
"What age and what dress had Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret?"
"You have had such answers as you will have from me, and none others shall you have: I have told you what I know of it for certain."
"Before today, did you believe fairies were evil spirits?"
"I know nothing about it."
"Do you know if Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret hate the English?"
"They love what God loves: they hate what God hates."
"Does God hate the English?"
"Of the love or hate God may have for the English, or of what He will do for their souls, I know nothing; but I know quite well that they will be put out of France, except those who shall die there, and that God will send victory to the French against the English."
"Was God for the English when they were prospering in France?"
"I do not know if God hated the French; but I believe that He wished them to be defeated for their sins, if they were in sin."
"What warrant and what help do you expect to have from Our Lord for wearing this man's dress?"
"For this dress and for other things that I have done, I wish no other recompense than the salvation of my soul."
"What arms did you offer at Saint Denis?"
"My whole suit of white armor as becomes a soldier, with a sword I had won before Paris."
"Why did you make this offering?"
"In devotion, and as is the custom of soldiers when they have been wounded. Having been wounded before Paris, I offered them at Saint Denis, because that is the war-cry of France."
"Did you do it that these arms might be worshipped?"
"What was the purpose of these five crosses which were on the sword that you found at Saint Catherine of Fierbois ?"
"I know nothing about it."
"Who prompted you to have painted on your standard Angels with arms, feet, legs, and clothing?"
"I have already answered you."
"Did you have them painted as they came to see you?"
"No, I had them painted in the way they are painted in the Churches."
"Did you ever see them in the manner they are painted?"
" I will tell you nothing more."
"Why did you not have painted the brightness that comes to you with the Angels and the Voices?"
"It was not commanded me."
NINTH PRIVATE EXAMINATION
The same day, March 17th, afternoon. Present: The Bishop and the Deputy Inquisitor, assisted by Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Gerard Feuillet, Thomas de Courcelles, Jean Delafontaine; in presence of Brother Ysambard de la Pierre and John Grey.
We interrogated the said Jeanne, as follows:
"Did the two Angels painted on your standard represent Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel?"
"They were there only for the honor of Our Lord, Who was painted on the standard. I only had these two Angels represented to honor Our Lord, Who was there represented holding the world."
"Were the two Angels represented on your standard those who guard the world? Why were there not more of them, seeing that you had been commanded by God to take this standard?"
"The standard was commanded by Our Lord, by the Voices of Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, which said to me : 'Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven'; and because they had said to me 'Take the standard in the name of the King of Heaven,' I had this figure of God and of two Angels done; I did all by their command."
"Did you ask them if, by virtue of this standard, you would gain battles wherever you might find yourself, and be always victorious ?"
"They told me to take it boldly, and that God would help me."
"Which gave most help, you to your standard, or your standard to you ?"
"The victory either to my standard or myself, it was all from Our Lord."
"The hope of being victorious, was it founded on your standard or on yourself?"
"It was founded on Our Lord and nowhere else."
"If any one but you had borne this standard, would he have been as fortunate as you in bearing it?"
"I know nothing about it: I wait on Our Lord."
"If one of the people of your party had sent you his standard to carry, would you have had as much confidence in it as in that which had been sent to you by God? Even the standard of your King, if it had been sent to you, would you have had as much confidence in it as in your own?"
"I bore most willingly that which had been ordained for me by Our Lord; and, meanwhile, in all I waited upon Our Lord."
"For what purpose was the sign you put on your letters and these words: 'Jhesus Maria'?"
"The clerks who wrote my letters put it; some told me that it was suitable for me to put these two words: 'Jhesus Maria'."
"Was it never revealed to you that if you lost your virginity, you would lose your happiness, and that your Voices would come to you no more?"
"That has never been revealed to me."
"If you were married, do you think your Voices would come?"
"I do not know; I wait on Our Lord."
"Do you think, and do you firmly believe, that your King did right in killing, or causing to be killed, my Lord the Duke of Burgundy?"
"It was a great injury to the Kingdom of France; and, whatever there may have been between them, God sent me to the help of the King of France."
"As you have declared to my lord of Beauvais that you will reply to him and his Commissioners as you would before our most holy Lord the Pope, and as there are many questions which you will not answer, would you reply before the Pope more fully than before us?"
"I have answered you all the truth that I know; and if I know anything which comes to my memory that I have left unsaid, I will tell it willingly."
"Does it not seem to you that you are bound to reply more fully to our Lord the Pope, the Vicar of God, on all that might be asked you touching the Faith and the matter of your conscience, than you should to us?"
"Very well; let me be taken before him, and I will answer before him all I ought to answer."
"Of what material was one of your rings, on which was written 'Jhesus Maria'?"
"I do not exactly know; if it were of gold, it was not fine gold; I do not know if it were of gold or of brass; there were three crosses on it, and no other mark that I know of, except 'Jhesus Maria.' "
"Why was it that you generally looked at this ring when you were going into battle?"
"For pleasure, and in honor of my father and mother; I had that ring in my hand and on my finger, when I touched Saint Catherine as she appeared to me."
"What part of Saint Catherine ?"
"You will have no more about it."
"Did you ever kiss or embrace Saint Catherine or Saint Margaret?"
"I have embraced them both."
"Did they smell good?"
"It is well to know, they smelled good."
"In embracing them, did you feel any heat or any thing else?"
""I could not have embraced them without feeling and touching them."
"What part did you kiss - face or feet?"
"It is more proper and respectful to kiss their feet."
"Did you not give them crowns?"
"In their honor, I often put crowns on their images in the Churches. As to those who appeared to me, I never gave any to them that I can remember."
"When you placed crowns of flowers on the tree of which you spoke before, did you put them in honor of those who appeared to you?"
"When these Saints came to you, did you do them no reverence? did you bend the knee before them? did you bow?"
"Yes: and, so far as I could do them reverence, I did; I know it is they who are in the Kingdom of Paradise."
"Do you know nothing of those who came in the air with the fairies?"
"I have never done or known anything about them; but I have heard of them, and that they came on Thursdays; but I do not believe it; I think it is sorcery."
"Did not they wave your standard round the head of your King when he was consecrated at Reims?"
"No, not that I know of."
"Why was it taken to the Church of Reims for the consecration more than those of other captains?"
"It had shared in the pain, it was only right it should share in the honor."