The Lapse Trial (or "Trial in Ordinary") Begins: The Promoter Presents His Petition and The Seventy Articles.

March 26- 28, 1431

(In the text footnotes are in bold)

Here begins the Trial in Ordinary, after the Trial Ex-Officio.

Monday after Palm Sunday, 26th day of March, in the Bishop's House. Present: The Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaître, assisted by 12 Assessors.

In presence of the above, We caused to be read certain Articles comprising that one which the Promoter intended to produce against Jeanne.

After the reading of these Articles, it was decided that, following the preliminary trial until now conducted from our Office, as We, the Bishop, and subsequently We, the Deputy, have decreed and concluded, it will be expedient to proceed henceforward by an action in Ordinary.

It was also decided that the Articles just read have been well put together; that Jeanne should be questioned and heard upon each of them; that these Articles shall be proposed, in the name of the Promoter, by some grave advocate, or by the Promoter himself; that if Jeanne should refuse to answer after a Canonical monition shall have been addressed to her, as a preliminary, the said Articles shall be held as acknowledged.

Following on this decision, We, the Judges, gave order that the Articles of which we treat shall, from tomorrow be proposed by our Promoter; and that Jeanne should be, in like manner, interrogated upon each of them and heard in answer.

The next day, Tuesday after Palm Sunday, 27th day of March, in the room near the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen. The Promoter opened the case. Present: The Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaitre, assisted by 38 Assessors.

He then showed the text of the accusation drawn up by him against Jeanne, in the which are found stated the Articles just spoken of, and of which the tenor shall be written below.

This done, We, the Judges, did request the Lords and Masters here present to deliberate and to give Us their opinion.

This deliberation (given only in the Minutes) took place in presence of Jeanne, as follows :

And first, Maître Nicolas de Venderès said: that Jeanne should in the first place be compelled to swear what the Promoter had rightly demanded; that should Jeanne refuse to swear, she be accounted contumacious and excommunicate, and be proceeded against according to law.

Maître Jean Pinchon: That the Articles should first be read to her.

Maître Jean Basset: That the Articles should be read to her before she be excommunicated.

Maître Jean Guerin: Agrees with preceding.

Maître Jean Delafontaine: Of the same opinion as M. Venderès.

Maître Geoffrey de Crotay: That she should be given at least three days before being declared excommunicate and convicted ; in civil matters there is always a three days' delay for taking the oath.

Maître Jean Ledoux: Agrees with preceding.

Maître Gilles Deschamps: That the Articles should be read to her, and that a day should be assigned for her to answer.

Maître Robert Barbier: Agrees with preceding.

The Lord Abbot of Fecamp: She is bound to speak the truth on what touches the Case; that, if she has not already been summoned to that effect, she be so summoned with the due legal interval.

Maître Jean de Chatillon: She is bound to speak the truth, her own affairs being in question.

Maître Erard Ermengard: Agrees with the Abbot of Fecamp.

Maître Guillaume Lebouchier: Agrees with the preceding.

The Lord Prior of Longueville: For those things to which she does not know how to answer, it seems to be exacting too much to wish her to reply by "I believe', or " I do not believe."

Maître Jean Beaupère: To questions of fact on which she has certain knowledge she should reply at once; to others, on which she has not certain knowledge or which relate to law, delay should be granted if she asks for it.

Maître Jacques de Touraine: Agrees with the preceding.

Maître Nicolas Midi: The same, with this addition: That the Jurists should be consulted in order to decide if she should be constrained to swear from the present time.

Maître Maurice Duguesnay: The same as the Abbot of Fecamp.

Maître Jean de Nibat: As to the Articles he would refer to the Jurists; as to the oath, she is bound to swear regarding such things as touch on the Trial or the Faith; if on other subjects she should ask delay, let it be granted to her.

Maître Jean Leftvre: Refers to the Jurists.

Maître Pierre Maurice: She should answer to what she knows.

Maître Gerard: She is bound to reply on oath.

Maître Jacques Guesdon: Agrees with preceding.

Maître Thomas de Courcelles: She should answer; each Article should be read to her, and she should answer them in order. As to delay, it should be granted to her on such points of the subject as she should request it.

Maître André Marguerie: She ought to swear on what touches the Case: as to doubtful points she should be allowed delay.

Maître Dennis Gastinel: She ought to swear; the Promoter is right to demand her oath; as to what action should be taken in case she should refuse, it would be necessary for him to consult his books.

Maître Aubert Morel, and Maitre Jean Duchemin: She ought to swear.

The opinion of the others is lacking.

Then We, the Judges, considering the request of the Promoter, by the advice of each of the Assessors, gave order, and do give order, that the Articles just produced by the Promoter shall at once be read and shown in French to the said Jeanne, who, on each of them, shall answer according to knowledge; and if there are any points on which she asks delay, delay of right shall be granted to her.

Then the Promoter did abjure all calumny that is to say, he affirmed upon oath, that he was not led to bring these Articles against the said Jeanne by favor, rancor, hate or fear, but was solely animated by zeal for the Faith.

These preliminaries being completed, We, the Bishop did address to Jeanne a Canonical Admonition. We told her that all the Assessors were ecclesiastical persons of consummate knowledge, experts in law, human and divine, who desired and intended to proceed against her, as they had already done up to this time, with kindness and piety, and that, far from seeking vengeance or punishment, they desired, on the contrary, only her instruction and return into the way of truth and salvation. "But because you are neither well enough taught nor instructed in these difficult matters to know, by yourself, what you should do or say, We offer you to choose for counsel such of the Assessors as you shall be pleased to point Out; if you do not of yourself know how to make this choice, We offer to do it for you, and to point Out to you some who will counsel you on what you have to answer or do, on the condition always, that in matters of pure faith you will answer yourself, and charging you to swear to speak the truth on those things which are personal to yourself."

To Our exhortation, Jeanne replied in these terms:

"First, as to that on which you admonish me for my good and for our Faith, I thank you and all the company also; as to the counsel which you offer me, also I thank you; but I have no intention of desisting from the counsel of Our Lord. As to the oath that you wish me to make, I am ready to speak the truth on all that touches the Case."

And thus did she swear, her hands on the Holy Gospels.

After this, by Our order were read the Articles contained in the document which the Promoter had just deposited. Each of those Articles was read to Jeanne in the French language by Thomas de Courcelles; and she was called upon to reply in succession to each of these Articles : which she did. The completion of this formality had filled up the end of the Sitting for this day, and all the Sitting of the next day.

The Registrars appear to have had their difficulties from the very beginning. The notes taken by them at the morning sittings were read over in the presence of some of the Assessors at the Bishop's lodgings in the afternoon, and compared with those made by the concealed English clerks. Differences of opinion

arose very often; but the officials refused to allow their own notes to be overridden, and, whenever any disputed point was referred to the Accused, their version was always found to be correct. These notes were finally drawn up by Manchon in a complete form, and upon them is based the whole account of the Trial as it appears in the Latin translation, the subsequent work of Thomas de Courcelles.



 [The Seventy Articles, prepared by the Promoter, d'Estivet, which form the Accusation of the Trial in Ordinary, were read to Jeanne by Thomas de Courcelles, on Tuesday, March 27th. In her replies, here given, Jeanne refers constantly to previous answers. The dates of Examinations, in which these are said to occur, follow in notes.]


 And first, according to Divine Law, as according to Canon and Civil Law, it is to you, the Bishop, as Judge Ordinary, and to you, the Deputy, as Inquisitor of the Faith, that it apparent to drive away, destroy, and cut out from the roots in your Diocese and in all the kingdom of France, heresies, witchcraft's, superstitions, and other crimes of that nature; it is to you that it apparent to punish, to correct and to amend heretics and all those who publish, say, profess, or in any other manner act against our Catholic Faith: to wit, sorcerers, diviners, invokes of demons, those who think ill of the Faith, all criminals of this kind, their abettors and accomplices, apprehended in your Diocese or in your jurisdiction, not only for the misdeeds they may have committed there, but even for the part of their misdeeds that they may have committed elsewhere, saving, in this respect, the power and duty of the other Judges competent to pursue them in their respective dioceses, limits, and jurisdictions. And your power as to this exists against all lay persons, whatever be their estate, sex, quality, and pre-eminence: in regard to all you are competent Judges.

" What have you to say to this Article?"

"I believe surely that our Lord the Pope of Rome, the Bishops, and other Clergy, are established to guard the Christian Faith and punish those who are found wanting therein: but as for me, for my doings I submit myself only to the Heavenly Church - that is to say, to God, to the Virgin Mary, and to the Saints in Paradise. I firmly believe I have not wavered in the Christian Faith, nor would I waver."


The Accused, not only this year, but from her infancy, and not only in your Diocese, Bishop, and your jurisdiction, Deputy, but also in many other places of this kingdom, had done, composed, contrived and ordained a number of sacrileges and superstitions : she made herself a diviner; she caused herself to be adored and venerated; she had invoked demons, and evil spirits; consulted them, associated with them, had made and had with them compacts, treaties, and conventions, had made use of them, had furnished to others, acting in the same manner, aid, succor, and favor, and had, in much, led them on to act like herself; she had said, affirmed, and maintained that to act thus, to use witchcraft, divination's, superstitions, was not a sin, was not a forbidden thing, but, on the contrary, a thing lawful, to be praised, worthy of approval; also she had led into these errors and evil doings a very great number of persons of divers estates, of both sexes, and had imprinted on their hearts the most fatal errors. Jeanne had been taken and arrested within the limits of your diocese of Beauvais, in the very act (flagrante delicto) of perpetrating all these misdoings.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I deny ever having used witchcraft, superstitious works, or divination's. As to allowing myself to be adored, if any kissed my hands and my garments, it was not my doing or by my wish; I sought to protect myself from it, and to prevent it as much as in me lay. And as for the rest of the Article, I deny it."


The Accused had fallen into many diverse and detestable errors which reek of heresy. She had said, vociferated, uttered, published and inculcated within the hearts of the simple, false and lying propositions allied to heresy, even themselves heretical, contrary to our Catholic Faith and its principles, to Gospel rules, and to the Statutes established or approved by General Councils; propositions, contrary not only to the Divine Law but also to Canon and Civil Law; propositions scandalous, sacrilegious, contrary to good manners, offensive to Pious ears: she had furnished help, counsel and favor to the people who dogmatically, affirmed, or promulgated such propositions.

"What have you to say to this Article ?"

"I deny it, and on the contrary affirm that I have always upheld the Church so far as it lay in my power."


But it is time to instruct you more fully and more directly, my Lords and Judges, on the offenses, excesses, crimes, and misdemeanors, committed by the Accused in the diocese of Beauvais and elsewhere, in many and divers places.

It is true that the Accused was born in the village of Grus [Greux], of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle, his wife; that she lived until seventeen years old or thereabouts in the village of Domremy, on the Meuse, in the diocese of Toul, in the Bailly of Chaumont, in Bassigny, in the provost of Montclere and Andelot.

In her childhood, she was not instructed in the beliefs and principles of our Faith; but by certain old women she was initiated in the science of witchcraft, divination, superstitious doings, and magical arts. Many inhabitants of these villages have been known for all time as using these kinds of witchcraft: Jeanne

had herself said that she learned from several, notably from her godmother, many things touching her visions and the apparitions of fairies; through others also, she had been penetrated by the detestable and pernicious errors of these evil spirits - so much so, that, in these interrogations before you, she had confessed that even now she did not know if these fairies were evil spirits or not.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"For the first part it is true, in so far as concerns my father, my mother, and the place of my birth. As to the fairies, I do not know what they are. On what touches my teaching, I learnt to believe, and have been brought up well and duly to do what a good child ought to do. For what concerns my godmother, I refer to what I have said on another occasion. You ask me to say the Creed? Ask my confessor, to whom I said it."


Near the village of Domremy there is a great tree, big and ancient; it is called "the Charmed Tree of the Fairy of Bourlement": near by is a spring; round this tree and this spring live, it is said, evil spirits called fairies, with whom those who use witchcraft are accustomed to come and dance at night.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"For the tree and the spring, I refer to my previous answers. The rest, I deny." (1)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 8th Private Examination, March 17th; and 9th Private Examination, March 17th.


Accustomed to frequent this tree and this spring, above all by night, sometimes also by day, but at the times when the Church celebrates the Divine Office, Jeanne, in order to find herself more alone, danced roundelays around this tree and this spring; from time to time she hung from its branches garlands of herds and flowers woven by her own hands, accompanying her dances with songs mingled with invocations, sorceress, and other witchcraft's: the garlands thus left overnight on the following morning were not to be found.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer for a part to my previous answers ; the rest I deny." (2)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th.)


Jeanne was in the habit of carrying about with her a mandrake, hoping thereby to secure fortune and riches in this world, she, in fact, believed that the mandrake has the virtue of procuring fortune.

"What have you to say about the mandrake?"

"I deny it entirely. "(3)....(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


Towards her twentieth year, Jeanne, of her own wish, and without permission of her father and mother, went to Neufchateau, in Lorraine, and was in service for some time at the house of a woman, an innkeeper named La Rousse, where lived women of evil life, and where soldiers were accustomed to lodge in great numbers. During her stay in this inn, Jeanne sometimes stayed with these evil women, sometimes took the sheep into the fields, or led the horses to watering in the meadows and pastures: it was there that she learnt to ride on horseback and to use arms.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I said elsewhere. I deny the rest."(4)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd, and 3rd Public Examination, February 24th.)


Whilst she was in service with these women, Jeanne indicted a young man before the Officials at Toul for breach of promise; many times she repaired to Toul for this end, and spent thus nearly all that she had. This young man refused to marry her, because he knew she had been connected with evil women. He died during the trial. Jeanne then, unable to remain longer, quitted the service of this woman.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"On the subject of this trial for marriage I have answered elsewhere and refer to my answer. I deny the rest." (5)....(Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)


After having quitted the service of La Rousse, Jeanne pretended, and still did pretend, to have had continually during five years, visions and apparitions of Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret They revealed to her, she says, by order of God, that she should raise the siege of Orleans and crown Charles, whom she calls her King; and that afterwards she would drive out his enemies from the realm of France. In spite of her father and mother, she left home, of her own motion, of her sole inspiration, and went to Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, to whom she communicated, in virtue of the order of Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, the visions and revelations that God had made to her, asking of the said Robert to find her the means to accomplish what had been revealed to her. Twice repulsed by Robert, she returned twice to her parents. Returning a third time to the attempt, on a pretended order sent to her by revelation, she was then admitted and received by the said Robert.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

" I refer to what I said before." (6)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th.)


Having become familiar with the said Robert, Jeanne boasted that, after having done and accomplished all that had been commanded her of God, she would have three sons, of whom the first should be Pope, the second Emperor, and the third King. Robert de Baudricourt, hearing this, said to her, "Would I could be father to one myself, if they are to be such great people! my own value would thereby be the greater!" "Nay, nay, gentle Robert," replied Jeanne, "it is not time; the Holy Spirit will accomplish it." (7)....(This answer is given in French In the text.)

This is the tale which the said Robert had in many places often affirmed, told and published, and this in presence of prelates, lords, and high personages.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I have already said.(8)....(No previous answer is recorded.) I never boasted that I should have three children."(9)....(Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)


In order the more openly and better to attain her end, Jeanne asked of Robert de Baudricourt to have made for her a man's dress and armor appropriate. This captain, with great repugnance, ended by acquiescing in her request. These garments and armor made and furnished, Jeanne, rejecting and abandoning women's clothing, her hair cut en-round like a young coxcomb, took shirt, breeches, doublet, with hose joined together and fastened to the said doublet by twenty points, long leggings laced on the outside, a short mantle [surcoat] to the knees, or thereabouts, close-cut cap, tight-fitting boots or buskins, long spurs, sword, dagger, breastplate, lance and other arms in fashion of a man of war, affirming that in this she was executing the order of God, as had been prescribed to her by revelation.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I refer to what I said before."

"Did you then take this costume, these arms, and all this warlike apparel by the order of God?"

"On this also I refer to what I said before." (10)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th; and 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne attributes to God, His Angels and His Saints, orders which are against the modesty of the sex, and which are prohibited by the Divine Law, things abominable to God and man, interdicted on pain of anathema by ecclesiastical censure, such as dressing herself in the garments of a man, short, tight, dissolute, those underneath as well as above. It is in virtue of these pretended orders that she had attired herself in sumptuous and stately raiment, cloth-of-gold and furs; and not only did she wear short tunics, but she dressed herself in tabards, and garments open at both sides; and it is notorious that she was taken prisoner in a loose cloak of cloth-of-gold. She was always seen with a cap on her head, her hair cut short and a-round in the style of a man. In one word, putting aside the modesty of her sex, she acted not only against all feminine decency, but even against the reserve which men of good morals, wearing ornaments and garments which only profligate men are accustomed to use, and going so far as to carry arms of offense. To attribute all this to the order of God, to the order which had been transmitted to her by the Angels and even by Virgin Saints, is to blaspheme God and His Saints, to destroy the Divine Law and violate the Canonical Rules; it is to libel the sex and its virtue, to overturn all decency, to justify all examples of dissolute living, and to drive others thereto.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I have not blasphemed God nor His Saints."(11)....(The two following questions and answers appear in the Minute only.) "But, Jeanne, the Holy Canons and Holy Writ declare that women who take men's dress or men who take women's dress, do a thing abominable to God. How then can you say that you took this dress at God's command?"

"You have been answered. If you wish that I should answer you further, grant me delay, and I will answer you."

"Will you not take the dress of a woman to receive your Savior on Easter Day?"

"Neither for that nor for anything else will I yet put off my dress. I make no difference between man's dress and woman's dress for receiving my Savior. I ought not to be refused for this question of dress." (12)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th, and 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


Jeanne affirms that she has done right in attiring herself in garments worn only by dissolute men; she does profess that she will continue to retain them until she shall have received, by revelation, the express order of God: by this, she outrages God, the Angels, and the Saints.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I do no wrong in serving God; tomorrow I will answer you."

[One of the Assessors]: "Did you have revelation or order to wear a man's dress?"

"I have already answered that elsewhere. I refer to my previous sayings. To-morrow I will answer. I know well who made me take a man's dress; but I do not know how I can

reveal it." (13)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 3rd Private Examination; March 12th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th. These questions and answers come after Article XIII. in the minute.)


Jeanne, having many times asked that she might be permitted to hear Mass, had been invited to quit the dress she now wears and to take again her woman s dress; she had been allowed to hope that she will be admitted to hear Mass and to receive Communion, if she will renounce entirely the dress of a man and take that of a woman, as her sex; she had refused. In other words, she had chosen rather not to approach the Sacraments nor to assist in Divine Service, than to put aside her habit, pretending that this would displease God. In this appears her obstinacy, her hardness of heart, her lack of charity, her disobedience to the Church, and her contempt of Divine Sacraments.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I would rather die than revoke what I have done by the order of Our Lord."

"Will you, to hear Mass, abandon the dress of a man?"

"I will not abandon it yet; the time is not come. If you refuse to let me hear Mass, it is in the power of Our Lord to let me hear it, when it shall please Him, without you. I recollect being admonished to take again a woman's dress. As to the irreverence and such like things, I deny them."(14)....(Cf. 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th. After Article XV., the following sentence is inserted in the Extracts, but is not in the Procés. "She added that the Demoiselle de Luxembourg prayed the Seigneur de Luxembourg not to give her up to the English.")


Previous to, and since her capture, at the Castle of Beaurevoir and at Arras, Jeanne had been many times advised with gentleness, by noble persons of both sexes, to give up her man's dress and resume suitable attire. She had absolutely refused, and to this day also she refuses with persistence; she disdains also to give herself up to feminine work, conducting herself in all things rather as a man than as a woman.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"At Arras and Beaurevoir I was invited to take a woman's dress; then I refused, and I refuse still. As to the women's work of which you speak, there are plenty of other women to do it." (15)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


When Jeanne found herself in the presence of Charles, thus attired and armed, she promised him these three things among others: that she would raise the siege of Orleans; that she would have him consecrated at Reims; that she would avenge him on his enemies, who, all of them, English or Burgundians, should be, thanks to her, killed or driven out of the kingdom. Many times and in many places did she repeat publicly the same boasts; and, to give them greater weight, then and often afterwards, she did use divination's, and by these means unveiled the morals, the entire life, the most secret acts, of persons who came before her, whom she had never before seen or known; she boasted of knowing all by revelation.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"In the name of God I brought the news to my King that Our Lord would restore the kingdom to him, cause him to be crowned at Reims, and drive out all his enemies; I was a messenger from God, when I told the King boldly to set me to work and I would raise the siege of Orleans. I mean, in so saying, the whole kingdom; and if my Lord of Burgundy and the other subjects of the King do not return to their obedience, the King will know how to make them by force. As to the end of the Article, of knowing Robert de Baudricourt and my King, I hold to what I said before."(16)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 4th Private Examination, March 13th.)


So long as Jeanne remained with Charles, she did dissuade him with all her power, him and those with him, from consenting to any treaty of peace, any arrangement with his adversaries; inciting them always to murder and effusion of blood; affirming that they could only have peace by sword and lance; and that God willed it so, because otherwise the enemies of the King would not give up that which they held in his kingdom; to fight against them thus, is, she told them, one of the greatest benefits that can happen to all Christendom.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"As to my Lord of Burgundy, I requested him by my ambassadors and my letters that he would make peace between my King and himself; but as to the English, the peace they need is that they may go away to their own country, to England. I have answered on the remainder of the Article; and I refer to this answer." (17)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th.)


It was by consulting demons and using divination's, that Jeanne sent to look for a sword hidden in the Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois. Perchance she had already maliciously, fraudulently, and deceitfully hidden or caused to be hidden this sword in the same church, so to seduce the princes, nobles, clergy, and people, and to lead them to believe more easily that she knew by revelation in what place this sword was. By this stratagem and others of a like nature she succeeded in inspiring an absolute faith in all her words.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I said before; I deny all the rest." (18)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)


She had put faith in her ring, in her banner, in certain pieces of linen, and pennons which she carried or caused to be carried by her people, and also in the sword found by revelation, according to her, at Saint Catherine de Fierbois, saying that these things were very fortunate.' She made thereon many execrations and conjuration's, in many and divers places, publicly asserting that by them she would do great things and would obtain victory over her enemies; that to those of her people who carried pennons of this kind no ill could happen. She said all this at Compiegne on the eve of the day when, having sallied to attack my lord the Duke of Burgundy, she was taken prisoner and many of her followers were wounded, killed, or taken. She said as much at Saint Denis, when she incited her army to attack Paris.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I refer to what I have already said. In all I have done there was never any sorcery or evil arts.' As for the good luck of my banner, I refer it to the fortune sent through it by Our Lord (de bona ftrtund sui estandart Se refert ad fortuniurn quod Dorninus Noster in es transmissit)." (19)....(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne, by temerity or presumption, had caused to be written certain letters at the head of which she placed the names 'Jhesus Maria,' with a cross in the middle. These letters she caused to be addressed in her name to our Lord the King, to my Lord of Bedford, Regent of France, to the lords and captains who were then at the siege of Orleans, containing a number of things wicked, pernicious, contrary to the Catholic Faith, the tenor of which is found in the Article which follows:

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I did not send the letters of which you speak in pride or in presumption, but by command of Our Lord. I remember and acknowledge the contents of these letters, with the exception of three words. If the English had believed my letters, they would only have been wise; and before seven years are gone they will perceive it well enough ! "(20)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 6th Public Examination March 3rd.)


Tenor of the letter :(21)....(Vide 5th Public Examination, March 1st: pages 36-38.)

"What have you to say to this letter? "

"I remember having it written except three words, which I did not dictate. If the English had believed my words they would have acted wisely. Before seven years arc gone, they will feel the truth of what I wrote to them, and for that, I refer to the answer which I made elsewhere."


The tenor of the letter contained in the preceding Article proves well that Jeanne had been the sport of evil spirits, and that she often consulted them to know what she ought to do; or, at least, that, to seduce the people, she imagined these inventions by lying or wickedness.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I deny ever having done anything under the inspiration of evil spirits."(22)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th.)


Jeanne had gravely misused the names "Jhesus Maria" and the sign of the cross placed beside them ; it was understood between her and her people that, when they saw on her letters these words and this sign, they were to do the contrary of what she wrote: and, in fact, they did do the contrary.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I said before."(23)....(Cf. 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Usurping the office of Angels, Jeanne had said and affirmed that she had been sent by God; and she had said this even for cases which tend openly to violence and effusion of human blood: a proposition the most foreign to all holiness, horrible and abominable to all pious souls.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"First, I begged them to make peace; and it was only in case they would not make peace that I was ready to fight."(24)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne, being at Compiegne in August of 1429, did receive from the Count d'Armagnac a letter of which the tenor forms the article which follows.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I said before."(25)....(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


Tenor of the said letter.(26)....(Vide 5th Public Examination, March 1st: pages 34-35)


To this letter Jeanne did send in answer the letter signed with her name, found in the Articles which follow.

ARTICLES 29 and 30

Letter of Jeanne to the Count d'Armagnac.(27)....(Vide ante, page 35.) "What have you to say on these Articles, 27, 28, 29, 30, which have been read to you with great care, from the first word to the last?"

"I refer to what I answered on Article 26."(28)....(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


The next day, Wednesday, March 28th, in the same room, near the great Hall of the Castle of Rouen, before the Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaître, assisted by 35 Assessors.

Before them had been resumed the reading, begun the preceding day, of the Articles in the document produced by the Promoter. Their contents in French, being shown to Jeanne, Article by Article, she had been questioned on each of these Articles and had continued to reply, as here follow, after having anew sworn to speak truth on everything touching the Trial.(29)....(The following incident occurs in the Minute only) The Bishop, referring to the promise given on the previous day by Jeanne that she would answer on the subject of her dress, asks that, before proceeding with the reading, this answer may be given. To which Jeanne replies:

"The dress and the arms that I wear, I wear by the permission of God: I will not leave them off without the permission of God, even if it cost me my head: but, if it should so please Our Lord, I will leave them off: I will not take a woman's dress if I have not permission from Our Savior."

Jeanne is interrogated in prison on submission to the Church.


 From the time of her childhood and since, Jeanne had boasted, and every day still did boast, of having had, and of still having, numerous revelations and visions on the subject which, although she had been on this charitably admonished and legally required to swear, she had not made, nor wished to make, nor is now willing to make, any oath. She will not even make known the revelations made to her, by words nor by signs. This she had postponed, contested, refused, and did now also postpone, contest, and refuse. Many times had she said and affirmed in a formal manner, in Court and outside, that she will not make known these revelations and visions to you, her Judges, even if her head should be cut off, or her body dismembered. "They shall not drag it from my mouth," she had said, "neither the sign that God revealed to me, nor the means whereby I knew that this sign came to me from God."'

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"As to revealing the sign and the other things, of which you speak, I may well have said I will not reveal them. I add, to what I before acknowledged that I should have said I would not reveal it without leave from Our Lord."(30)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 8th Private Examination, March 37th.)


By this refusal to make known these pretended revelations, you may and should presume strongly that the revelations and visions of Jeanne, if she had them always, came to her from lying and evil spirits rather than from good. And all the world may take it for certain, considering her cruelty, her pride, her dress, her actions, her lies, the contradictions here given in various Articles, that all these together constitute in this respect the most powerful of presumptions, both of law and right.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I did it by revelation, from Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret; and I will maintain it even unto death.' If I put on my letters the names 'Jhesus Maria,' it was because I was advised to do so by certain persons of my party; sometimes I used these names, sometimes not.' As to that passage in my answer of which you remind me, "All that I did, I did by the counsel of Our Lord,' it should be completed thus: 'All that I did well.' "

"Did you do well or ill to advance on La Charite?"

"If it were ill done, it will be confessed."'

"Did you do well to advance on Paris?"

"The gentlemen of France wished to advance on Paris. In doing this, it seems to me they did their duty in going against their enemies."


Jeanne had presumptuously and audaciously boasted, and did still boast, of knowing the future and of having foreseen the past, of knowing things that are in the present, but hidden or unknown ; all which, an attribute of the Deity, she claims for herself, a simple and ignorant creature.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"It is in Our Lord's power to give revelations to whom He pleases; that which I said of the sword of Fierbois and of things to come, I knew by revelation."(31)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th; 5th Private Examination, March 14th.)


Obstinate in her temerity and presumption, Jeanne had said, proclaimed, and published, that she recognized and discerned the voices of Archangels, Angels, and Saints; she had affirmed and did still affirm that she knew how to distinguish their Voices from human voices.

"What have you to say on this Article ?"

"I hold by what I have already said: of my pretended temerity, and, of that which has been concluded against me, I refer to Our Lord, my Judge."(32)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 3rd; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)


Jeanne had boasted and affirmed that she did know how to discern those whom God loves and those whom He hates.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I hold by what I have already said elsewhere of the King and the Duke d'Orleans; of the others I know not; I know well that God, for their well-being,(33).... (Minute reads : "pour l'aise de son corps.) (pro ediis corporum suorum), loves my King and the Duke d'Orleans better than me. I know it by revelation."(34)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination Feb. 24th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne had said, affirmed, and boasted, she did say, affirm, and every day boast, that she had known and could know exactly-and that not only herself, but also others through her means recognized and surely knew - the Voice which came to her, although from its nature a voice must be invisible to every human being.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I hold by what I have said elsewhere."(35)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd.)


 Jeanne did confess to having frequently done the contrary to what had been commanded her by the revelations she did boast to have had from God; for example, when she retired from St. Denis, after the assault on Paris, and when she leaped from the top of the tower of Beaurevoir. By this, it is manifest, either that she had had no revelations from God, or that, if she had had them, she had despised them. And she it is, who, after this, did dare to affirm that she is in all things guided and governed by commands from on high and by revelation! Besides, she had said that, when she had had the order not to leap from the top of the tower, she was compelled to act contrary to this order, without being able to resist the constraint put upon her will; in the which she appears to think wrongly on the matters of Freewill and to fall into the error of those who believe that man is led by Fate or by some other irresistible power.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I hold by what I have said elsewhere. I state in addition that when I left St. Denis I had permission from my Voices."

"In acting against your Voices, do you think you committed mortal sin? "

"I have answered elsewhere to that; I refer to that answer. On the concluding part of this Article, I refer me to God."(36)....(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)


Jeanne, from the time of her child hood, had said, done, and committed a great number of crimes, sins and evil deeds-shameful, cruel, scandalous, dishonoring, unworthy of her sex; now she did say and affirm that all that she had done had been with the approbation and by the will of God; that she had done nothing and now did nothing which proceed not from God, by means of the revelations transmitted to her by the Holy Angels and the Holy Virgins, Catherine and Margaret.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I refer to what I have said elsewhere." (37)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)


Although the Just sin seven times a day, Jeanne had said and published that she had never committed, or, at least, that she did believe never to have committed, mortal sin. Nevertheless, as many Articles of the present accusation prove, she had indeed practiced, and on a vast scale, acts customary to nations who are at war, and others yet more grave.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have answered it; I refer to what I have said elsewhere."(38)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Private Examination, March 14th.)


Forgetful of her salvation, impelled by the devil, she is not and had not been ashamed several times and in many and divers places to receive the Body of Christ, having upon her a man's dress of unseemly form, a dress which the Jaws of God and man do forbid her to wear.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have answered elsewhere.' I rely upon what I have said before.' I rely upon Our Lord."(39)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


Jeanne, as one desperate, for hate and contempt of the English, and foreseeing the destruction of Compiegne, which she believed to be imminent, did attempt to kill herself by throwing herself down from the top of a tower; at the instigation of the devil, she took it into her head to commit this action; she applied herself to commit it; she did commit it in so far as she was able; on the other hand, in so throwing herself down, she was so well impelled and guided by a diabolic instinct that she had in view rather the safety of her body than that of her soul and of many others. Often indeed, had she boasted that she would kill herself rather than that she should be delivered to the English.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I rely upon what I have said before."(40)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 5th Private Examination, March 28th.)


Jeanne had said and published that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret and Saint Michael have bodies - that is to say, head, eyes, face, hair, etc.; that she had touched them with her hands; that she had kissed them and embraced them.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have already answered it, and I rely upon what I have said."(41)....(Cf. 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne had said and published that the Saints, the Angels, and the Archangels speak the French language and not the English language, because the Saints, the Angels, and the Archangels are not on the side of the English, but of the French; she had outraged the Saints in glory, in implying to them a mortal hatred against a Catholic realm and a nation devoted, according to the will of the Church, to the veneration of all the Saints.


This Article having been set forth to Jeanne word for word, she only answered thus:

"I rely on Our Lord, and upon what I have replied before."(42)....(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


Jeanne had boasted and did yet boast, she had published and did publish, that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have promised to lead her to Paradise, and have assured her that she will obtain heavenly joy if she preserve her virginity; she affirms she is certain of this.

" What have you to say on this Article?"

"I rely on Our Lord and on what I answered elsewhere."(43)....(Cf. 5th Private Examination, March 14th; 6th Private Examination, March 14th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


Although the judgments of God are impenetrable to us, nevertheless Jeanne had said, uttered, declared, and promulgated that she had known and can know those who are Saints, Archangels, Angels, or the elect of God; she knew how to discern them.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

" I refer to what I have already said." (44)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


She had said that, before leaping from the tower of Beaurevoir, she did most lovingly entreat Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret for the people of Compiegne, saying to these Saints in a reproachful manner, "And how can God allow these people of Compiegne, who are so loyal, to die thus miserably?" In the which did appear her impatience and her irreverence towards God and the Saints.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I refer to what I have already said."(45)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


Provoked with her wound, Jeanne, after the leap from the tower of Beaurevoir, seeing she had not attained her end, began to blaspheme God and the Saints, abjuring them with horrible taunts, insulting them terribly, to the great confusion of all those present. In the same way, when she was in the Castle of Rouen, many times, and on different days, did she blaspheme and deny God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Saints: in impatience and resentment at being brought for judgment before an ecclesiastical tribunal and forced to appear there.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I hold by Our Lord and by what I have already said."(46)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 6th Private Examination, March 14th.)


Jeanne had said that she did and does still believe that the spirits which appear to her are Angels and Archangels and the Saints of God, as firmly as she believes in the Christian Faith, and in the Articles of that Faith, although she can report no sign which can be of a nature to prove that she had in reality had this communication; she had consulted neither Bishop, Priest, nor Prelate, nor any ecclesiastical person whatsoever, to know whether she ought to have faith in such spirits; yet more, she said that her Voices have forbidden her to reveal anything to any one whosoever it may be, save first to a captain of soldiers, then to Charles her King, and afterwards to other persons purely laic(old English: secular, of the laity). By this, she admits that her belief on this point is audacious, her faith erroneous, her revelations doubtful, having always kept them from the knowledge of the clergy and never having been willing to reveal them save to seculars.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I have answered it already. I refer to what is written. And as to the signs, if those who asked for them were not worthy, I could not help it. Many a time did I pray that it might please God to reveal it to some of this party. It is true, that to believe in my revelations I asked neither Bishop, Priest, nor any one else. I believe it was Saint Michael, from the good teaching he showed me."

"Did Saint Michael say to you: 'I am Saint Michael'?"

"I have answered before."

As to the concluding part of the Article, she answered: "I refer me to Our Lord. . . As firmly as I believe Our Savior Jesus Christ suffered death to redeem us from the pains of hell, so firmly do I believe that it was Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret whom Our Savior sent to comfort and to counsel me."(47)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)


On the foundation of this fancy alone Jeanne had venerated spirits of this kind, kissing the ground on the which she said they had walked, bending the knee before them, embracing them, kissing them, paying all sorts of adoration to them, giving them thanks with clasped hands, taking the greatest familiarities with them; when she did not know if they were good or evil spirits, and when, by reason of all the circumstances revealed above, these spirits should have been rather considered by her as evil. This worship, this veneration, is idolatry: it is a compact with demons.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have already answered ; for the conclusion, I refer me to Our Lord."(48)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Every day and many times daily Jeanne did invoke these evil spirits and consult them on what she should do, notably on the manner in which she should answer in court. This seems to constitute, and did in effect constitute, an invocation of demons.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have already answered it; I shall call them to my help as long as I live."

"In what way shall you call them ?"

"I beseech Our Lord and Our Lady that they will send me counsel and comfort, and then They send it to me."

"In what words do you beseech this?"

"I say 'Most sweet Lord, in honor of Thy Holy Passion I beseech Thee, if You love me, that You wilt reveal to me how I should answer these Clergy. I know well, as regards this dress, the command by which I have taken it; but I do not know in what way I should leave it off: for this, may it please Thee to teach me.' And soon they come to me. I often by my Voices have news of my Lord of Beauvais."

The Bishop: "What do your Voices say of Us?"

"I will tell you apart. . . . To-day they came to me three times."

"In your chamber?"

"I have answered you; I hear them well. Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have told me what I should say on the subject of my dress."(49)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 4th Private Examination, March 13th; 5th Private Examination, March 14th.)



Jeanne had not feared to proclaim that Saint Michael, the Archangel of God, did come to her with a great multitude of Angels in the house of a woman where she had stopped at Chinon; that he walked with her, holding her by the hand; that they together mounted the stairs of the Castle and together gained the Chamber of the King; that the Angel did reverence to the King, bowing before him, surrounded by this multitude of Angels, of which some had crowns on their heads and others had wings. To say such things of Archangels and the Holy Angels is presumption, audacity, lying, as in the holy books we do not read that they did a like reverence, a like demonstration, to any saint - not even to the Blessed Virgin, Mother of God. Jeanne had said that the Archangel Saint Gabriel had often come to her with the blessed - Michael, and sometimes even with thousands of Angels. She had also proclaimed that the same Angel, at her prayer, did bring in this company of Angels a crown, the most precious possible, to place upon the head of her King a crown which is today deposited in the treasury of the King; that the King would have been crowned at Reims with this crown, if he had deferred his consecration some days: it was only because of the extreme haste of his coronation that he received another. All these are lies imagined by Jeanne at the instigation of the devil, or suggested by demons in deceitful apparitions, to make sport of her curiosity, she who would search secrets beyond her capacity and condition.

"What have you to say on this Article ?"

"On the subject of the Angel who brought the sign I have already answered. As to what the Promoter suggests on the subject of the thousands of Angels, I do not recollect having said it - that is to say, the number; I did certainly say that I had never been wounded without receiving great comfort and help from God and from the Saints Catherine and Margaret. As to the crown, on this also I have replied. Of the conclusion which the Promoter makes against my deeds, I refer me to God, Our Lord; and where the crown was made and forged, I leave to Our Lord."(49)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 4th Private Examination, March 13th.)


By all these inventions, Jeanne had so seduced Christian people that many have in her presence adored her as a Saint, and in her absence do adore her still, composing in her honor masses and collects; yet more, going so far as to call her the greatest of all the Saints after the Virgin Mary, raising statues and images to her in the Churches of the Saints, and bearing about them medals in lead or other metal representing her - exactly as the Church does to honor the memory and the recollection of the canonized Saints publicly proclaiming that she is sent from God, and more Angel than woman. Such things are pernicious to the Christian religion, scandalous, and prejudicial to the salvation of souls.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"As to the commencement of the Article, I have already answered; as to the conclusion, I refer to Our Lord."(50)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


In contempt of the orders of God and the Saints, Jeanne, in her presumption and pride, had gone so far as to take command over men; she had made herself commander-in-chief and had under her orders nearly 16,000 men, among whom were Princes, Barons, and a number of Gentlemen: she had made them all fight, being their principal captain.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"As to the fact of being commander-in-chief, I have answered before; if I have been commander-in-chief, it was to fight the English. As to the conclusion of the Article I refer me to God."(51)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th.)


Jeanne did behave in an unseemly manner with men, refuses the society of women, wishes to live with men only, to be waited upon by them, even in her own room and in the most private details: a like thing had never been seen nor heard of a chaste and pious woman.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"It is true that my command was over men; but as to my quarters and lodging, most often I had a woman with me. And when I was engaged in the war I slept fully dressed and armed, not being able always to find a woman. As to the conclusion of the Article, I refer me to God."


Jeanne had abused the revelations and prophecies that she said she had from God, to procure for herself lucre and temporal profit; by means of these pretended revelations, she had acquired great riches, a great show and great estate in officers, horses, and attire; she had obtained great revenues for her brothers and relations, imitating in this the false prophets, who, to acquire temporal gain or to obtain the favor of kings, were accustomed to pretend that they had had revelations from God on things which they knew would be to the taste of their princes; abusing the divine oracles, she had thus attributed her lies to God.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I have answered elsewhere. As to the gifts made to my brothers, that which the King gave to them was of his grace, without my asking. As to the charge made by the Promoter and the conclusion of the Article, I refer me to Our Lord."(52)....(Cf. 1st Private Examination, March 10th.)


Jeanne had many times proclaimed that she had two counselors whom she calls 'Counselors of the Well,' and who have come to her since she had been taken captive, as appears from the declaration made by Catherine de la Rochelle before the Officials in Paris.(53)....(This is the only known reference to this declaration of Catherine de la Rochelle.) This Catherine had said that Jeanne, if she be not well guarded, will get out of prison, by the help of the Devil.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I hold by what I have already said; and as to the 'Counselors of the Well,' I do not know what it means. I certainly believe that I overheard Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret there. The conclusion of the Article I deny."

[And then she did swear by her oath(54)....(Her usual oath was 'En nom De' [in the name of God] or 'Par mon martin' [by my baton] that she did not wish the Devil to deliver her from prison.) (55)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)


The day of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, Jeanne did assemble the whole army of Charles, to make an attack on the city of Paris; she did lead the army against the city, affirming that she would enter it on that day that she knew it by revelation: she directed all the arrangements possible for the entry. And, nevertheless, she is not afraid to deny it before us here in court. And at other places also, at La Charite-sur-Loire, for example, at Pont L'Eveque, at Compiegne, when she attacked the army of the Duke of Burgundy, she affirmed and foretold that which, according to her, would take place, saying that she knew it by revelation: now, not only did the things predicted by her not come to pass, but the very contrary happened. Before you she had denied having made these predictions, because they were not realized, as she had said; but many people worthy of trust report(56)....(These reports do not appear in the official documents.) to have heard her utter them. At the time of the assault on Paris, she said that thousands of angels were around her, ready to bear her to Paradise if she should be killed: now, when she was asked why, after the promises made to her, not only did she not enter Paris but that many of her men and she herself had been wounded in a terrible manner and some even killed, she answered "It was Jesus, who broke His word to me."

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"As to the beginning, I have answered it already. If I think of more later, I will willingly answer then. I never said that Jesus had failed me."(57)....(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 4th Private Examination, March 13th.)


Jeanne did cause to be painted a standard whereon are two Angels, one on each side of God holding the world in His hand, with the words "Jhesus Maria" and other designs. She said that she caused this standard to be done by the order of God, who had revealed it to her by the agency of His Angels and Saints. This standard she did place at Reims near the Altar, during the consecration of Charles, ishing, in her pride and vain glory, that it should be peculiarly honored. Also did she cause to be painted arms, in the which she placed two golden lilies on a field azure; between the lilies a sword argent, with a hilt and guard gilded, the point of the sword pointing upwards and surmounted with a crown, gilded. All this is display and vanity, it is not religion nor piety; to attribute such vanities to God and to the Angels, is to be wanting in respect to God and the Saints.

" What have you to say on this Article ?"

"I have already answered it; for the conclusions drawn by the Promoter, I refer to Our Lord."(58)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 28th; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 8th Private Examination March 17th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


At St. Denis in France Jeanne did offer and cause to be placed in the Church, in the most prominent place, the armor she wore when she was wounded while attacking the town of Paris; she desired that this armor should be honored as relics. In this same town, she did cause to be lighted candles, for the melted wax to fall on the heads of little children, saying that this would bring them happiness, and making by such witchcraft's many divination.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"As to my armor, I have answered; as to the candles lighted and melted, I deny it."(59)....(Cf. 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)


In contempt of the laws and sanction of the Church, Jeanne had several times before this tribunal refused to speak the truth: by this, she did render suspect all she had said or done in matters of faith and revelation, because she dares not reveal them to ecclesiastical judges; she dreads the just punishment she had merited and of which she appears herself to be conscious, when, on this question, she did in court urge this proverb, that "for speaking the truth, one was often hanged." Also she had often said: "You will not know all," and again, "I would rather have my head cut off than tell you all."

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I never sought delay, except to answer more surely on what was asked me. When I am doubtful if I ought to answer, I ask delay to know if I ought to speak. As to the counsel of my King, because it does not touch on this case, I would not reveal it. Of the sign given to the King, I have told it, because the clergy did constrain me to do so."(60)....(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)


Admonished of having to submit all her words and actions to the Church Militant, after that the distinction between the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant had been shown to her, Jeanne declared that she submitted herself to the Church Triumphant and refused to submit to the Church Militant, confessing by this that she did not rightly understand the Article of the Faith 'I believe in the Church, One, Holy, Catholic,' and that she is in error on this point. She had said she would reveal them only to God, and that she referred her acts to God and to His Saints and not to the judgment of the Church.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I wish with all my power to give honor and reverence to the Church Militant. For referring my acts to the Church Militant, I must refer to Our Lord Who caused me to do them."

"Will you refer to the Church Militant as to what you have done?"

"Send me the clerk on Saturday next, and I will answer."(61)....(Cf. 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)


Jeanne had labored to scandalize the people, to induce them to believe in her talk, taking to herself the authority of God and His Angels, presumptuously seeking to seduce men from ecclesiastical authority, as do the false prophets who establish sects of error and perdition and separate themselves from the unity of the Church; a thing pernicious in the Christian religion, which, if the Bishops did not provide against it might destroy ecclesiastical authority; on all sides, in fact, raising up men and women who, pretending to have revelations from God and the Angels, will sow untruth and error as had already happened to many since this woman had arisen and had begun to scandalize Christian people and to publish her knavery's.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I will answer next Saturday."


 Jeanne is not afraid to lie in court, and to violate her own oath when on the subject of her revelations; she did affirm a number of contradictory things, and which imply contradiction among themselves: she did not fear to hurl malediction against a whole nation, the rulers of that nation and its greatest people; she did speak of them without respect, allowing herself a tone of mockery and derision such as no woman in a state of holiness would allow; which showed well that she is ruled and guided by evil spirits and not, as she had boasted, by God and the Angels. Christ said of false prophets,

"Ye shall know them by their fruits."

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I refer to what I have said, and, for the conclusion, to God Our Lord."(62)....(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)


 eanne did pretend to know that she had obtained pardon of the sin committed when, in despair, driven by the evil spirits, she threw herself from the tower of the Castle at Beaurevoir: yet the Scriptures say that no one knew if he is worthy of love or hate, nor, in consequence, if he is purged of sin and justified.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have answered you, and to that I refer. Of the charge and the conclusion, I refer me to Our Lord."


 Many times Jeanne had said that she asked of God to send her special revelations by the Angels and by the Saints Catherine and Margaret upon what she ought to do: for example, in the matter of learning if she ought to make known the truth in court on certain points and certain facts which are personal to herself. It is to tempt God, to ask Him that which ought not to be asked of Him, because there is no need, and man may himself suffice for it by his own research. Thus, by the leap from the tower of Beaurevoir she did seem manifestly to have tempted God.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I have answered it, and will not, without the leave of Our Lord, reveal what has been revealed to me. It is not without need that I beseech God. I wish He would send me more, so that it might be discerned that I am come from God and that it is He Who had sent me."


 Of many of the deeds and words that have just been noticed some are opposed to the Divine Law, to Gospel Law, to Canon Law, to Civil Law, and to the rules of General Councils; others are witchcraft's, divination, or superstitions; others breathe heresy and errors in faith; others are attempts against peace and tend to the effusion of human blood; others constitute blasphemies against God and the Saints and are wounding to pious ears. In all this, the Accused, by her audacious temerity, at the instigation of the Devil, had offended God and sinned against Holy Church; she had been a cause of scandal; she is on all these points notoriously defamed: she should be punished and corrected by you.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I am a good Christian; for all with which you charge me I refer to Our Lord."


All and each of these transgressions the Accused had committed, perpetrated, said, uttered, recited, dogmatized, promulgated, put in action, as much in your jurisdiction as elsewhere, in many and divers places of this realm, not once only but many times, in divers times, days and hours. She had fallen again and again into all these errors; she had furnished counsel, help, and favor to those who have committed them with her.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"I deny it."



 Because a persistent clamor had struck your ears not once only, but many times; because public rumor and an information based on what had gone before had made you recognize that the Accused is vehemently suspect and defamed; you have decreed that there is reason to bring an action against her, and to proceed therein, by you or one of you, by causing the said woman to be cited, and by setting her to answer as had been done.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"This Article concerns the Judges."


 By all which precedes, the Accused is vehemently suspect, scandalized and as far as possible defamed by all honest and serious people. But by all that had gone before she is neither corrected nor amended; she had postponed and did still postpone; she had refused and did still refuse to correct or amend herself; she had continued and persevered, did continue and persevere, in her errors, although by you the Judges, and by a great number of notable clergy, and other honest persons, she had been charitably and otherwise duly and sufficiently warned, summoned and required.

"What have you to say to this Article?"

"The misdeeds brought forward against me by the Promoter, I have not done. For the rest, I refer me to God. Of all the misdeeds brought forward against me, I do not think I have committed any against the Christian faith."

"If you have done anything against the Christian faith, will you submit to the Church and to those to whom correction belongs?"

"On Saturday, after dinner, I will answer you."


 All and each of these propositions contained in these Articles are true, notorious and manifest; the public voice and rumor had occupied and did occupy itself there with; the Accused had recognized and acknowledged these things as true, many times and sufficiently, before witnesses proved and worthy of belief, in and out of court.

"What have you to say on this Article?"

"I deny all that I have not recognized and confessed."


Having attained conviction of the truth of all or part of the preceding Articles in a manner to justify the proposed end, which is that you may be enabled to pronounce in recognition of the cause, the Promoter did conclude that it will be ultimately judged by you, upon the whole, according to law and right.

And the said Promoter humbly implores your offices on all these things, as may be suitable.